|Sleep Difficulties of Corrections Professionals: Nothing to Yawn At|
|By Caterina Spinaris|
“I sleep a lot and have had bouts with insomnia and did not sleep for days.”
“Too much mandatory overtime has affected my sleep patterns.”
These are quotes from anonymous corrections officers. Their comments are not at all unusual. We have also heard many a time of staff bringing six “high-energy” (that is, high-caffeine) drinks to work, to consume during their shift—to force their brain to stay awake and alert while on duty, when in fact it is trying to shut down and go to sleep.
Of DWCO’s national 2011 sample of N=3599 corrections professionals of multiple job types and agency types, 43.3% indicated that they were experiencing sleep problems, with 45.8% of the men reporting sleep problems, and 40.2% of the women. Of those who reported having been exposed to one or more incident of violence, injury or death, 45.7% reported sleep problems, as opposed to 26.8% of those who did not report exposure to such incidents. Of those comorbid-positive (that is, meeting criteria for PTSD and also scoring as moderate or higher on depression symptom severity) 72.1% reported sleep problems, as opposed to 37.3% those who were not comorbid-positive.
Sleep disturbances include difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, nightmares, obstructive sleep apnea, and Restless Leg Syndrome.
What are some of the consequences of sleep deprivation/insufficient sleep? According to the Centers for Disease Con-trol and Prevention (CDC), 23.2% of US adults 20 years and older reported difficulty concentrating on things in relation to sleep insufficiency (less than 7 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period), and 18.2% reported difficulty remembering things in relation to sleep insufficiency. In corrections work environments, difficulty concentrating or remembering can have life-threatening consequences.
Also according to CDC, insufficient sleep is associated with high-risk behaviors such nodding off or falling asleep while driving, and unintentionally falling asleep during the day. And insufficient sleep is associated with low energy and feel-ing tired during the day.
Sleep insufficiency undermines health by increasing the risk of chronic illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, and obesity, as well as cancer, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life and productivity .
Moreover, a study of employees in the transport industry and in the army found that even moderate sleep depriva-tion produced impairments in processing and motor performance. These impairments were be equivalent to those of alcohol intoxication . After 17-19 hours without sleep, speed and accuracy on some tests were equivalent to or worse than speed and accuracy at a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) of 0.05%. After longer periods without sleep (up to 28 hours), performance reached levels equivalent to performance following the maximum alcohol dose given to subjects (BAC of 0.1%). In the US, drivers with BAC of .08% or higher are considered to be legally intoxicated—Driving Under the Influence (DUI).
Given the inescapable consequences of sleep deprivation on health and functioning, it seems safe to conclude that every effort must be made to ensure that corrections professionals, and in particular shift workers, are presented with work conditions that allow them to get on at least 7 hours of sleep per 24-hour period.
Here are some tips from the National Sleep Foundation that may help promote sufficient and good quality sleep.
 Institute of Medicine. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.
 Williamson, A. & Feyer, A. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equiv-alent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 57, 649–655.
Editor's note: Caterina Spinaris is the Executive Director at Desert Waters Correctional Outreach and a Licensed Professional Counselor in the State of Colorado. She continues to contribute to the field of corrections staff well-being individually and organizationally, in particularly regarding issues of traumatic stress due to exposure to violence, injury, death on the job, and also issues of organizational climate improvement.
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